Comprehensive high-power DC fast charging solutions

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Direct Current (DC) fast charging enables batteries to be charged at higher power levels, offering advantages such as faster charging speed, lower losses, and higher efficiency. It can accommodate large capacity batteries, enhancing the usability and convenience of electric vehicles (EVs). With the increasing popularity and development of electric vehicles, DC fast charging has become the mainstream technology in current EV charging applications, promising a bright market outlook. This article will introduce the application development trends in DC charging and related solutions introduced by Arrow Electronics in collaboration with partners like Infineon, ST, and others.

The global outlook for DC fast charging is promising

Market analysis indicates that by 2034, DC fast chargers will occupy a 33% share of the public charging station market. In the United States, for instance, the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law includes a $5 billion National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) program over five years.

In Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA), the goal is to establish 3.5 million charging points by 2030, with approved investments of €15 billion for alternative fuels infrastructure, including electric fast-charging facilities across a Trans-European Networks.

In the Asia-Pacific region, McKinsey estimates that by 2030, the ASEAN market will require 95,000 public AC charging points and 40,000 DC charging points, representing a 30-fold increase compared to current numbers, with China accounting for over 90% of this market share.

DC charging applications will cover typical power ranges from 50 kW to 350 kW. Globally, the number of DC chargers reached 868,000 in 2023, up over 60% from 330,000 in 2022. According to roadmap for 2030, the U.S. is projected to have 500,000 fast chargers, while the EU will have 3.5 million charging points, indicating substantial market growth potential.

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30kW electric vehicle charger one stop solutions

eInfochips, a subsidiary of Arrow, is optimistic about the development of the DC fast charging market and has launched a 30kW electric vehicle charger one stop solution. The eInfochips DC fast charger design is an intelligent, connected, and future-ready DC charger.

The eInfochips DC charger features a 10-inch large HMI display (brightness of 1000 nits) capable of issuing notifications through LEDs and a speaker. The LEDs can indicate power status, faults, and charging status, and it includes a 3W speaker output for user notifications. Remote management is enabled using EVWER (eInfochips intellectual property). The charger supports CCS1/CCS2 charging standards, incorporates ultra-compact footprint energy metering, and is compatible with OCPP 1.6J/ISO15118 standards for smart charging/V2G applications. It includes built-in protections for overvoltage, overcurrent, surges, and other system safety mechanisms, with a rated power of 30 kW/60 A.

The eInfochips DC charger is modular, comprising power modules and SECC units. It supports input protections such as overvoltage/undervoltage, overtemperature, overcurrent, ground fault, RCD/CCID devices, short circuit, surge, and emergency shutdown. Output protections include overtemperature, overcurrent, DC high voltage (input/output), galvanic isolation, and electric shock (DC isolation monitor). It features Gigabit Ethernet and Wi-Fi network interfaces, supporting OCPP 1.6J network communication, ISO15118, IEC 61851-23, -24 vehicle communications, and CCS1/CCS2 charging interface with energy metering capabilities.

This comprehensive electric vehicle charging solution includes software/digital platform development of cloud-agnostic solutions (Azure, AWS, GCP), advanced charging function implementation, notifications, push alerts, reporting, and dashboard, as well as data aggregation and analysis capabilities. It undergoes pre-compliance and certification testing (CE, FCC, UL, RoHS, REACH), supports functional testing, EDVT, thermal testing, mechanical testing including IP67, shock, pressure washing, and UV radiation, and includes quality assurance and test automation.

In addition, this electric vehicle charging solution also supports mobile/WebApp development, based on a multi-tenant web-based platform that enables cross-platform Android/iOS mobile app development. It includes full-stack design, UI/UX, App analytics, and multi-language support. In terms of firmware development, it supports BSP development/customization/testing for operating systems like Linux, RTOS, and Android, enabling firmware applications, OTA updates, cybersecurity, device drivers, HAL, middleware, and libraries.

The solution also provides design-to-manufacturing Manufacturing as a Service (MaaS) one stop solutions, assisting with manufacturing/assembly design, components/supply chain navigation, and access to over 15 contract manufacturers. Its hardware design complies with OCPP compliant for electric vehicle charger design, supporting embedded, industrial, mechanical design, as well as components/BoM, architecture, PCB schematics, layout, signal integrity, board bring-up, prototype design, DFA/DFM, and other resources. It also offers management services, such as product lifecycle management, modernization of legacy assets, L1/L2/L3 support, 24x7 NOC, SLA management, DevOps/CloudOps etc.

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Supporting high power battery voltage more than 1200V DC charging solutions

As electric vehicle battery voltages increase from 400V to 800V, the rated voltage rating of power devices is also increasing to 1200V and above to reduce the mass of copper wires and improve power density. To meet this demand, Infineon has introduced the EVAL-FFXMR20KM1HDR CoolSiC; MOSFET 2kV 62 mm SiC MOS Half-Bridge Module Evaluation Board, which is a gate driver board designed to drive 62 mm modules in a half-bridge configuration using Infineon's latest CoolSiC MOSFET technology. It incorporates the compact gate driver 1ED3890MC12M and boost stage devices to enhance driver output power with reliability and fast controllability.

This half-bridge module evaluation board features a 62 mm, 2kV module with CoolSiC Trench MOSFET technology for optimized gate driving with separated source and sink gate connections. It utilizes the 1ED3890MC12M or 1ED3890MU12M (X3 digital) driver IC with I2C bus for parameter adjustments and supports hardware undervoltage lockout (UVLO) protection. Proper PCB design can limit PCB heating during operation, with features like Two-level turn-off (TLTO) with adjustable slopes, plateau time, and plateau level, and prevent negative voltage adjustment ranging from -5V to 0V. This device testing is plug-and-play and ready to use board solution, offering benefits such as high positive voltage adjustments for high switching frequencies, with PCB design to limit PCB heating during operation, suitable for applications in electric vehicle charging, photovoltaics, and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), among others.

The EiceDRIVER™ 1ED38x0Mc12M Enhanced used in this evaluation board is a single-channel 5.7 kV (rms) isolated gate driver IC with I2C configurability, suitable for DESAT, soft-off, UVLO, Miller clamp, and optional two-level turn-off. This gate driver supports 650 V, 1200 V, 1700 V, 2300 V IGBT, SiC, and Si MOSFETs.

The gate driver supports a 40 V absolute maximum output supply voltage and typical peak output currents of ±3 A, ±6 A, and ±9 A for sourcing and sinking, suitable for hard-switching or optional two-level turn-off and active Miller clamp. The I2C bus is used for parameter configuration and status register readout, supporting precise, adjustable, temperature-compensated VCEsat detection (DESAT) with fault outputs and adjustable IGBT soft turn-off after desaturation detection, capable of operation at high ambient temperatures up to 125 °C, with over-temperature shutdown at 160 °C (±10 °C).

This gate driver supports tight IC-to-IC propagation delay matching (tPDD, max = 30 ns), with undervoltage lockout protection on the input and output sides and active shutdown feature. The integrated ADC comparator can generate configurable feedback or fault-off behavior, with a high common-mode transient immunity (CMTI) of 200 kV/μs. It is packaged in a space-saving small DSO-16 fine-pitch package with a large creepage distance (greater than 8 mm) and is certified to meet industrial application requirements according to UL 1577 and VDE 0884-11 safety certification.

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Complete 30 kW electric vehicle charger power module one-stop solution

ST also offers a complete 30 kW electric vehicle charger solution, including the 30 kW Vienna PFC rectifier reference design with digital control - STDES-30KWVRECT. This reference design is tailored for high-power three-phase active front-end (AFE) rectifier applications based on the three-level Vienna topology, introducing a comprehensive digital power solution.

Utilizing the SCTWA90N65G2V-4 and STPSC40H12C, the platform achieves peak efficiency more than 98.5%. It employs the STM32G474RE mixed-signal high-performance microcontroller for full digital control, enabling comprehensive control over power factor, DC voltage, and soft startup procedures. The STDES-30KWVRECT achieves low total harmonic distortion (THD less than 5% at full load) and high power factor (higher than 0.99 at full load), while providing high-bandwidth continuous conduction mode (CCM) current regulation.

This reference design comprises a three-phase three-level AC-DC power converter, supporting nominal rated DC voltage of 800 V and nominal rated AC voltage of 400 V with a maximum power of 30 kW, and power factor higher than 0.99, Inrush current control, and soft startup with THD lower than 5% during nominal operation.

In the power section based on SiC MOSFETs and SiC diodes, it supports high-frequency operation at 70 kHz, achieving greater than 98.5% efficiency. Parallel SiC MOSFETs enable higher power with balanced sharing current, reducing the weight and size of passive components.

The control section based on the STM32G474RE microcontroller includes control and monitoring interfaces such as SWD–UART, I²C, and DAC, along with a 64-pin digital power connector. LED status indicators serve as a user interface, and four integrated high-performance op-amps provide additional functionality.

In addition, ST has introduced a 30 kW SiC MOSFET DC-DC converter using the STM32G4, suitable for electric vehicle chargers. This digitally controlled DC charging module, the 30 kW three-phase LLC reference design (STDES-30KWLLC), has a rated output power of 30 kW, operates at a switching frequency of 100-300 kHz, and supports DC input voltages of 650 VDC – 850 VDC and DC output voltages of 200 VDC – 1000 VDC. It achieves a peak efficiency greater than 98% and integrates the high-performance 32-bit MCU, STM32G474. Operating in PFM mode, it features input protections such as undervoltage protection (UVP), overvoltage protection (OVP), and overcurrent protection (OCP), with output support for overvoltage protection (OVP) and overcurrent protection (OCP) functions.

This converter, based on 1200 V SiC devices and high switching frequencies, achieves higher efficiency using fewer SiC MOSFETs and can achieve higher power through a single LLC converter with a wide range and high output voltage.

Another offering from ST is the 30 kW three-phase Vienna rectifier for electric vehicle charging stations. It accepts three-phase 345 VAC to 460 VAC input voltages at frequencies ranging from 47 Hz to 63 Hz, with a maximum input current of 55 ARMS. The DC output voltage is 800 VDC, rated output power is 30 kW, and it operates at a switching frequency of 70 kHz with a peak efficiency greater than 98.7%. Under full load operation, the power factor is 0.99, THD is less than 5%, and it integrates the high-performance 32-bit MCU, STM32G474. This 30 kW three-phase Vienna rectifier, based on SiC devices, achieves higher efficiency, extremely low THD (total harmonic distortion), and lower design complexity.

Also available is the 60 kW three-phase parallel LLC with digital control for warm up applications. It operates with DC input voltages of 650 VDC – 850 VDC and DC output voltages of 200 VDC – 1000 VDC, achieving a rated output power of 60 kW with a peak efficiency greater than 98%. Like the others, it integrates the STM32G474 high-performance 32-bit MCU and is a solution based on SiC devices, offering higher efficiency while parallel LLC using fewer SiC MOSFETs for higher power applications with a wide range and high output voltage.

ST's solutions based on the STM32G4 and SiC will contribute to high-performance electric vehicle chargers, including total solutions for PFC and DCDC to achieve high power. They also provide customers with advanced components (SiC MOSFETs, SiC diodes, STGAP, STM32). The 30 kW three-phase solution achieves a peak efficiency of 98% at 160 kHz and 700 Vout under half-load conditions.

Conclusion

DC fast charging is becoming increasingly important and rapidly evolving in electric vehicle applications, playing a pivotal role in modern electric vehicle technology. DC fast charging systems can deliver higher charging power to batteries and can charge them more quickly compared to AC charging. This advancement provides crucial support for the proliferation and development of electric vehicles, enhancing the overall user experience and usability. The solutions described in this article will accelerate the process of designing DC fast charging products for customers. For further information on these technologies, please contact Arrow directly to explore more technical details and discuss how these solutions can be integrated into your projects. 

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